Shoulder pain and injuries

Shoulder dislocation or instability

Of all the joints in the body, the shoulder is most prone to dislocation. It is often caused by contact sports such as  football, rugby and martial arts and presents itself as severe shoulder pain and loss of shoulder movement.

Rotator cuff injury

Rotator cuff is a group of muscles that work together to provide the shoulder joint with stability to help the joint during rotation. A rotator cuff injury is a common cause of shoulder pain: begins with inflammation of the rotator cuff which can lead to tearing. Pain is particularly noticeable when arms are raised above the head.

Muscle tear

There are a variety of causes that can result in muscle tear in the shoulder: blows to the shoulder, falls, throwing, pulling or lifting injuries.


A partial or temporary dislocation of the joint often occurs when the arm is outstretched as in throwing a soft ball or cricket ball. It is painful and often the arm feels weak or numb.

Frozen shoulder

A slow onset stiff or painful shoulder that results in inability to sleep on affected side as well as restrictions and pain with arm elevation and external rotation.

Shoulder bursitis

Shoulder bursitis refers to a condition where the subacromial bursa in the shoulder becomes inflamed due to trauma, infection, or more commonly overuse. The subacromial bursa sits between the acromion and the supraspinatus tendon and acts to reduce the frictional demands of tendon moving over bone. With overuse due to repetitive activity, often combined with poor biomechanics, the bursa can become inflamed.