Back pain

Upper-back pain

Muscle spasm

Muscle spasms stem from damage to the muscles and tendons of the upper back. This injury is common in athletes as a result of excessive exercise and overuse of muscles.

Back pain

Upper back pain is less common than lower-back pain, but can still be very painful. Potential causes include joint dysfunction and muscular irritation. Back pain should be treated properly or it can lead to more serious problems and worse or ongoing pain.

Muscle strain

Upper-back muscle strain is often associated with sports injuries but can also be caused by repetitive movements when the muscles have been stretched too far.

Lower-back pain

Slipped disc

A large proportion of back pain is a result of a slipped disc, also known as herniated disc. This can occur due to wear and tear of discs through overuse, i.e. bending, lifting and sporting activities. It can cause sudden and severe pain.

Sacroiliac joint

The sacroiliac joint is located in the lower part of the back and joins the tail bone to one of the pelvic bones. These joints can become inflamed for several reasons, included inflammatory disease, hormonal changes during pregnancy and traumatic injury.

Sciatica or pinched nerve

Sciatica is a common type of back pain caused by pressure on the sciatic nerve. This often leads to pain in the lower back and down the back of the legs.

Arthritis degeneration

Commonly known as osteoarthritis, arthritis degeneration is the most common form of arthritis resulting from breakdown in the cartilage between the joints.


Scoliosis is the word used to describe spinal curvature. When a scoliosis develops the spine bends sideways and rotates along its vertical axis. These changes can have long-term consequences which may result in significant health problems.

Back pain

Lower back pain is extremely common, often due to minor damage to the muscles and ligaments in the back. Possible causes include being overweight, incorrect posture or straining muscles when lifting.

Muscle imbalance or instability

Often people aren’t even aware that they have a muscle imbalance but if one muscle is weaker in some way than another it can cause general discomfort or lead to injury.